Enzyme is a kind of active substance produced by organism and a catalyst for various biochemical reactions in the body. The digestion, absorption and utilization of various nutrients must depend on the role of enzymes. Enzymes have the characteristics of specificity, high efficiency and specificity. At present, thousands of enzymes have been found, more than 300 have been produced artificially, and more than 20 have been applied in feed industry. Enzyme preparations are produced by bioengineering methods. Enzyme preparation is a kind of feed additive which is widely used in feed in recent years. Enzyme preparation is an environmental friendly green feed additive because it can effectively improve the utilization rate of feed, save feed raw material resources, and has no adverse effects such as drug residues and drug resistance.
The main types of enzyme feed additives are as follows:
Amylase. Amylase mainly includesα- amylase and glucoamylase.α- amylase can decompose starch macromolecules into easily absorbed medium and low molecular substances. Glucoamylase can further decompose the medium and low molecular weight substances decomposed byα- amylase into glucose, which can be absorbed and utilized by animals.
Protease. Protease is a kind of hydrolase which can degrade protein peptide chain, mainly including pepsin, trypsin, papain and so on.
Cellulase. Cellulase can destroy the crystal structure of cellulose, hydrolyze cellulose macromolecules into oligosaccharides, and decompose oligosaccharides into glucose.
β- glucanase.β- glucan widely exists in a variety of plant raw materials with high viscosity, which is an important antioxidant factor affecting the transmission and absorption of nutrient molecules.β- glucanase can hydrolyze dextran and other macromolecules, reduce the viscosity of substances in the digestive tract, and promote the absorption of nutrients.β- glucanase is an important and widely used enzyme in enzyme feed additives.
Pectinase. Pectin is an antinutritional factor in plant materials, which affects the utilization rate of feed. Pectinase can effectively destroy pectin and promote the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Pectinase is also a common feed enzyme preparation.
Phytase. Most of the phosphorus in grain is in the form of phytate phosphorus. Animals do not secrete phytase, so the utilization rate of this part of phosphorus in grain is low. By adding phytase secreted by microorganisms in feed, this part of phosphorus can be decomposed and released, so as to reduce the amount of inorganic phosphorus in feed, reduce feed cost, and reduce the amount of phosphorus in animal feces Phosphorus excretion reduces environmental pollution. It is a kind of green feed additive which is widely used and has the best prospect.
Compound enzyme. Compound enzyme is a product made by mixing two or more enzymes with biological activity. The compound enzyme is prepared according to the characteristics of different animals and different growth stages. It has good effect and is the most commonly used feed additive at present.